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Limits

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Limits

The legal limits and recommendations from science, politics and interest groups vary massively - and apparently in proportion to their respective stands on knowledge of the biological effects of electric and magnetic fields change, as well as high-frequency fields.

Whether in the limits are also the main interests (protection of the population or industry?) Of the responsible bodies reflect, be doubted. However, it is important to know that for example currently used Mobilfunktechologie yet with a fraction of the currently used transmit power without any major restrictions would work (see final table). One could then no longer in garages mobile phones - but is this really necessary?

It is noteworthy that the statutory limits in those countries are relatively low, in which extensive - and especially independent - studies on the biological effects have been carried out. For example, in Sweden are meaningful studies on the relationship of low magnetic fields with exchange rate of leukemia in children. Accordingly, the thresholds are redefined, as in the second table is to be seen.

In Russia, however, lie for a long time (... especially since the cold war ...) extensive experience on the effect of RF fields in different modulations before. Note the valid values, which increased by a factor of 1000 and more

below the levels defined here!

The limits valid in Germany only offer some protection against acute damage. In the high frequency range, they are defined so that only direct thermal effects can be prevented.

Athermal effects (change in brain waves, etc., as they are already at a fraction of allowed benefits may occur) are here, in contrast to some Eastern European states, not taken into account!

Limits for electric fields at 50 Hz (in volts / meter)

<0.0001 V / m nature (Neizke, among other things)

0.5 V / m for rest areas BUND

0.7 V / m acceleration of cell division in yeast (Merron, Goodman, among others)

1 V / m Resolution Electrosmog Citizens Forum (sleeping areas)

1 V / m standard computer TCO (30-cm screen distance)

1 V / m Baubiologische recommendation for the sleeping area

10 V / m recommended critical scientists worldwide

10 V / m Resolution Electrosmog Citizens Forum (Wachbereich)

10 V / m Bundesverband Electrosmog (daytime)

10 V / m Baubiologische recommendation for Wachbereich

10 V / m TCO Standard for computer workstations, the world's largest study of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: health risk, recommendation U.S. Congress (1996), increase risk of pediatric leukemia (COGHILL 1996)

20 V / m recommendation Ecolog Institute, Hanover

20 V / m lowering hormone melatonin (Wilson, Andersen, Stephen, et al, 1990), oxidative stress, formation of free radicals (Kula, Sobczak, et al, 2002, Influence of cell signaling (Adey et al, 1976), influence of lymphocytes ( Leyle, Ayotte, Sheppard, et al, 1986)

25 V / m standard computer MPR (50-cm screen distance)

25 V / m limit proposals of the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Consumer Protection in the EU Parliament

100 V / m in 1996 by the NCRP as the maximum value recommended for jobs, not yet adopted

5000 V / m limit in Germany

10,000 V / m limit of INIRC for "worker"

20,000 V / m limit of the ACGIH for "worker"

25,000 V / m limit of INIRC for "worker" for a maximum of 2 hours

Limits for change of magnetic fields at 50 Hz (in nano-Tesla)

<0.0002 nT nature (including Neitzke)

10 nT Future Swedish Sagues limit.

10 nT Baubiologische recommendation for sleeping places.

50 nT Baubiologische recommendation for Wachbereich

60 nT disorder of the calcium ion-exchange

Disturbance of 70 nT EEG function (Newi, Hamburger E-Werke 1993)

> 100 nT ECOLOG-Institut Hannover, Cologne Institute of Catalysis f. residential areas, during the day. Suicide risk (internat. epidemiological studies), embryonic malformation, neuro-chemical changes (Becker, Philips, etc.), influence of cell metabolism (Li 1999, etc.)

> 110 nT Continuously rising cancer risk (Floderus, Karolinska Institute 1999)

130 nT 13.5-fold more children of leukemia in the first two years (Green 1999)

140 nT disorder ECG feature (Newi, Hamburger E-Werke 1993)

200 nT Current Swedish benchmark

200 nT target in Italy

200 nT TCO standard for jobs, DIN / VDE 0107 for medical diagnostic rooms, EEG. World's largest study of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: health hazard. Recommendation from the U.S. Congress 1996, cancer and brain tumor risk (international epidemiological studies), acceleration of cell division of yeast (Goodman 1984)

200-300 nT Elevated leukemia risk for children, many epidemiological studies

300 nT More premature births, childhood cancer (Wertheimer, Leeper 1976, etc.)

200-400 nT Increased leukemia, cancer and cancer risk (Karolinska Institute, and others)

300-400 nT Potential cancer risk, according to WHO (IARC 2001)

150-500 nT exposure-dependent increase of tumors (Hakasonvon 2002)

500 nT precautionary limit in Italy, technical disruption to tube screens

200-600 nT Rising growth of leukemia risk children up to 80% (UCLA 1999)

NT 200-1000 Alzheimer's and ALS 2 - to 7-fold increased (Savitz, Sobel, Feychting, etc.)

1000 nT Swiss Regulation on protection against non-ionizing radiation

<1.000 nT lowering of the hormone melatonin (Wilson 1990, Burch 1999, etc.), disruption of cell signaling (Adey and others 1976)

2000 nT chromosome damage, DNA breaks (several epidemiological studies)

2500 nT Oxidative stress, free radical (Kula, Sobczak and others 2002)

10,000 nT in 1996 by the NCRP as the maximum value recommended for jobs, not yet adopted

100,000 nT

Limit in Germany

500,000 nT recommendation INIRC for "workers" (permanent residence)

NT 1,000,000 limit on INIRC for "private individuals" (a daily stay for a few hours)

5,000,000 nT recommendation INIRC for "workers" (a daily stay for a few hours)

Border and thresholds for high frequency fields (in micro watt / square meter)

<0.000001 μW / m² Natural Microwave Background Radiation, ungepulst (Neitzke)

~ 0.001 μW / m² function of a D-, E-Net, UMTS phones still guaranteed!

0.01 μW / m² a proposal from the Citizens' Initiative UMTSNO for Wachbereich

0.1 μW / m² Altered calcium charge of human brain cells (Bahmeier)

1 μW / m² Baubiologie demand for sleep sector in 2003

1 μW / m² SalzburgerLand precautionary value (s)

to 10 μW / m² eco-test assessment as a low load (4 / 2001)

10 μW / m limit recommended by Dr. L. von Klitzing for mobile (2001)

10 μW / m² SalzburgerLand precautionary value (exterior)

100 μW / m² eco-test assessment as a high burden

100 μW / m² European claim the 2001 Parliament

100 μW / m² limit recommendation Dr. N. Cherry, Lincoln University New Zealand

200 μW / m² interference at the cell membrane (Marinelli 1999)

400 μW / m² DECT Telephone in 10m distance

500 μW / m² of BUND recommendation 1997

660 μW / m² limit Tuscany, Italy for the sum of all plants (Martini 2002)

800 μW / m² calcium ion changes in the cell (Schwartz 1990, etc.)

1000 μW / m² in the EEG power demonstrable brain changes (1994 v. Klitzing, etc.)

1600 μW / m² infertility in mice after 5 generations (Magras 1997)

1600 μW / m² motor and memory impairment in children (Kolodynski 1996)

2000 μW / m² leukemia, children from 2000 to 80000 (Hocking 1996)

2000 μW / m² limit in Russia ungepulst

10,000 μW / m² DNA damage (Phillips 1998, Verschave 1994, Lai 1996, etc.)

10,000 μW / m² disorder of the immune system in mice (Fesenko 1999)

10,000 μW / m² stimulation of T cells and macrophages (Novoselova 1999)

10,000 μW / m² opening of the blood-brain barrier (Salford 2003)

10,000 μW / m² field of GSM mobile phones in Salford experiments: headache, dizziness, irritability, fatigue, exhaustion (Simonenko 1998)

13,000 μW / m² increase in leukemia in adults (Dolk 1997)

20,000 μW / m² direct effect on ion channels of cells (D'Inzeo 1988)

24,000 μW / m² threshold Belgium / Wallonia (2001)

45,000 μW / m² Switzerland networks for D-900 MHz for use with sensitive areas

45,000 μW / m² ECOLOG-1998 Recommendation

50.000-150.000 μW / m² DECT phone in 0.5 m distance

95,000 μW / m² Switzerland for D-nets and above 1800 MHz (UMTS), for use with sensitive areas

100,000 μW / m limit in Poland

160,000 μW / m² threshold in Italy

240,000 μW / m² threshold in the former Czechoslovakia

2,000,000 μW / m² limit in New Zealand

4,500,000 μW / m² body warming pets for over 6 ° C (Adey, Myers and others)

4,500,000 μW / m²

Limit in Germany (900 MHz)

6,000,000 μW / m² Limit USA / Canada (900 MHz)

9,000,000 μW / m²

Limit in Germany (1,800 MHz)

10,000,000 μW / m²

Limit in Germany, UMTS (FDD) from 1920 MHz to 2200 MHz

NCRP = National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements

ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

IRPA/INIRC = International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection

Alle Angaben sind ohne Gew�hr.

 

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